Saint Germain, Treaty of


Saint Germain, Treaty of
   The Treaty of Saint Germain between the victorious Allies and Austria was signed on 10 September 1919. The former Austro-Hungarian empire was broken up, and new nations—Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Yugoslavia—were created. Italy’s territorial claims against Austria were one of the thorniest issues in the peace settlement, and the treaty left the Italian public feeling that Italy had been betrayed by its fellow powers. The secret Treaty of London (April 1915), which had secured Italian accession to the war on the side of the Entente, and a subsequent deal among the wartime premiers of France, Great Britain, and Italy in April 1917, had promised Italy large gains at the expense of Austria, control over much of the Dalmatian coastline (modern-day Croatia), the Dodecanese Islands, Smyrna in Asia Minor, and colonial compensation. These exorbitant promises, made at a moment when the Entente powers were desperate to get Italy into the conflict, seemed excessively generous compensation for Italy’s contribution once the war was over. Moreover, the United States had entered the war in 1917, and President Woodrow Wilson was determined to shape the postwar peace in accordance with the principle of self-determination of racial minorities. In particular, he was adamant that Italy would not acquire sovereignty over several hundred thousand Slavs in Dalmatia. Despite Italy’s representative at Paris, Prime Minister Vittorio Emanuele Orlando, walking out of the peace conference in protest, Italy’s expectations were cut back sharply. Wilson conceded Italy the Brenner frontier (ensuring that hundreds of thousands of German nationals were incorporated into Italy) and allowed Trieste and Istria, but not Dalmatia, to become Italian territory. Italy also maintained de facto control over the Dodecanese Islands but had to renounce its territorial ambitions in Asia Minor. Cunningly, Britain and France took advantage of Italy’s self-imposed exclusion from the conference table to ensure both that Italy was not given any of the former German or Turkish colonies as a “mandate” from the League of Nations and that it was not compensated with territorial gains in Africa. In objective terms, Italy was not badly treated by the peace settlement. Italy’s statesmen, however, had been convinced that the settlement would transform the Mediterranean into an “Italian lake” and that Italy would emerge as one of the indisputably great powers. The disillusionment was therefore enormous, with even moderates denouncing Italy’s supposed betrayal at the hands of the other powers. Resentment at the peace settlement enabled Gabriele D’Annunzioto seize the town of Fiume(which had been given to Yugoslavia) on the Dalmatian coast and fanned the already smoldering flames of nationalism and Fascism.

Historical Dictionary of Modern Italy. . 2007.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Saint-Germain, Treaty of — (1919) Treaty ending World War I between Austria and the Allied Powers. Signed at Saint Germain en Laye, near Paris, on Sept. 10, 1919, it came into force on July 16, 1920. It registered the breakup of the Habsburg empire and recognized the… …   Universalium

  • Saint-Germain — may refer to:people * Saint Germain of Paris (496 576), bishop of Paris who founded Saint Germain des Prés * Germaine Cousin (1579 1601), French saint * Claude Louis, Comte de Saint Germain (1707 1778), French general * Count of St Germain (… …   Wikipedia

  • Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye — The Treaty of Saint Germain may refer to one of a number of treaties signed at Saint Germain en Laye, as follows:* Treaty of Saint Germain en Laye (1570) terminated the third phase of the French Wars of Religion * Treaty of Saint Germain en Laye… …   Wikipedia

  • Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye (1919) — The Treaty of Saint Germain en Laye, was signed on 10 September 1919 by the victorious Allies of World War I on the one hand and by the new Republic of Austria on the other. Like the Treaty of Versailles with Germany, it contained the Covenant of …   Wikipedia

  • Saint-Germain-en-Laye — French commune name=Saint Germain en Laye| map size=270px adjustable mapcaption=Location (in red) within Paris inner and outer suburbs lat long=coord|48|53|49|N|02|05|29|E|region:FR type:city région=Île de France département=Yvelines ( sous… …   Wikipedia

  • Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye (1632) — The Treaty of Saint Germain en Laye was signed on March 29, 1632. It returned New France (Quebec) to French control after the English had seized it in 1629. It also provided France with compensation for goods seized during the capture of New… …   Wikipedia

  • Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye — The Château de Saint Germain en Laye …   Wikipedia

  • Peace of Saint-Germain-en-Laye — The Peace of Saint Germain en Laye was a treaty signed August 5, 1570 at the royal Château of Saint Germain en Laye, ending the third of the French Wars of Religion. In the third war, fought between Catholics and Protestants from 1568 to 1570,… …   Wikipedia

  • Lycée International de Saint Germain-en-Laye — The Lycée International of St Germain en Laye is a French state school located in St Germain en Laye, on the outskirts of Paris. It is unique in bringing together students from different origins in twelve national sections. According to the… …   Wikipedia

  • treaty — /tree tee/, n., pl. treaties. 1. a formal agreement between two or more states in reference to peace, alliance, commerce, or other international relations. 2. the formal document embodying such an international agreement. 3. any agreement or… …   Universalium


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.